Change the world

Anyone who performs the actions which may legally only be performed by the holder of copyright without permission from the holder of copyright is in violation of copyright. Copyright is therefore violated if any of the following actions are performed without permission from the holder of copyright:

  • the translation of a literary work or its reproduction, whether in the form of a film or in the form of copies or printouts, or whether the work is retyped or redrawn and then multiplied using that copy. (This includes reproductions of reproductions of a work). There are, however, a number of exceptions in which the law permits copying.


The Act provides for several exceptions, the most important of which are set out below:

  • The reasonable use of a reasonable portion of the work for the purposes of research, private study or personal or private use of the individual using the work.
  • The use of quotations, provided that the length of the quotation does not exceed the length justified by its use and provided that the name of the author and the source is clearly acknowledged. This means that definitions and brief illustrative quotes may be used in key notes
  • The use of a portion of a work as elucidation in publications designed for teaching provided that the use is reasonable and that the name of the author and/or source is clearly acknowledged. This does not mean that the work may be used as the only or primary source for teaching in the field concerned. This means that illustrative material may be used in key notes, but not in articles compiled for publication.

The stipulations set out so far apply, mutatis mutandis, to artistic and published works